Task Oriented Movement Therapy for Infants
Presented by Pam Versfeld
Ways to enhance perceptual-motor learning
Infant self initiated action and repeated opportunities for practicing new skills is central to developmental systems approaches to intervention.
In this article I provide an overview of ways to enhance engagement and learning. The video clip nicely illustrates how infants need to be given an opportunity to figure things out of themselves. and how we as play partners can get in the way .
It seemed to me that it is time to pull all the threads together and create an overall framework to guide early intervention that is informed by modern theories of perceptual-motor development and learning , the complex and inter-actional nature of infant behaviour, and the principles that inform the evidence based interventions such as GAME and Small Step programmes.
You can read my first pass at creating a such a framework here: for the moment it is called a developmental systems framework for early intervention.
The GAME approach: principles for EI
This TOMT website article provides a summary important principles of the GAME approach
For a more detailed description with links to supporting research see GAME (Goals - Activity - Motor Enrichment): protocol of a single blind randomised controlled trial of motor training, parent education and environmental enrichment for infants at high risk of cerebral palsy. BMC Neurol. 2014 Oct 7;14:203. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27027732
A brief introduction to how infants learn through repetition and exploration when engaging in goal directed, self-initiated actions.
And lastly a brief article on an infant’s the emerging sense of self.
Links to resources, references and useful websites
Family Centered Care Canchild
Pathways Videos 2,4 and 6 month typical and atypical motor development
University Utah Paediatric Neurological Examination https://neurologicexam.med.utah.edu/pediatric/html/newborn_n.html
Evidence Based Intervention
Systematic reviews http://tomt.skillsforaction.com/notes/early-intervention-systematic-reviews
The Game RCT and Principles http://tomt.skillsforaction.com/therapy/GAME-approach-EI-cp
Maitre, N. L., Chorna, O., Romeo, D. M., & Guzzetta, A. (2016). Implementation of the Hammersmith Infant Neurological Examination in a High-Risk Infant Follow-Up Program. Pediatric neurology, 65, 31–38.
Download video https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5395423/
Summary, video and references http://tomt.skillsforaction.com/notes/general-movements
Head control and development in supine
Head control: development and assessment
Supine assessment 2-3 months
Prone development and crawling
Prone development videos
Prone development and assessment
Infants who scoot on their buttocks
Early exploratory hand and foot actions
Overview: development of hand function
Foundation manual behaviors 0-5 months http://tomt.skillsforaction.com/dev/hands/foundation-manual-behaviors
How to set up a play gym to encourage early hand function
Infant foot actions
Training sitting: principles and assumptions
Infant sitting bibliography
Assessment and training of sitting
Standing and cruising
Overview development of standing
Infants who won’t put their feet down to stand
Guide to assessment of standing with hand support – with PDF download