TOMT workshop pre-reading and links

Task Oriented Movement Therapy for Infants

Presented by Pam Versfeld

Pre-workshop reading

Ways to enhance perceptual-motor learning
Infant self initiated action and repeated opportunities for practicing new skills is central to developmental systems approaches to intervention.

In this article I provide an overview of ways to enhance engagement and learning. The video clip nicely illustrates how infants need to be given an opportunity to figure things out of themselves.  and how we as play partners can get in the way . 

New article: Developmental Systems Framework for Early Intervention 

It seemed to me that it is time to pull all the threads together and create an overall framework to guide early intervention that is informed by modern theories of perceptual-motor development and learning , the complex and inter-actional nature of infant behaviour, and the principles that inform the evidence based interventions such as GAME and Small Step programmes.

You can read my first pass at creating a such a framework here: for the moment it is called a developmental systems framework for early intervention.

The GAME approach: principles for EI

This TOMT website article provides a summary important principles of the GAME approach
For a more detailed description with links to supporting research see GAME (Goals - Activity - Motor Enrichment): protocol of a single blind randomised controlled trial of motor training, parent education and environmental enrichment for infants at high risk of cerebral palsy. BMC Neurol. 2014 Oct 7;14:203.

Perception-action loops and motor learning

A brief introduction to how infants learn through repetition and exploration when engaging in goal directed, self-initiated actions. 

And lastly a brief article on an infant’s the emerging sense of self.

Links to resources, references and useful websites

Family Centered Care Canchild


Pathways Videos  2,4 and 6 month typical and atypical motor development

University Utah Paediatric Neurological Examination

Evidence Based Intervention

Systematic reviews

The Game RCT and Principles


Maitre, N. L., Chorna, O., Romeo, D. M., & Guzzetta, A. (2016). Implementation of the Hammersmith Infant Neurological Examination in a High-Risk Infant Follow-Up Program. Pediatric neurology65, 31–38.

Download video

GMFM    Can Child


General movements
Summary, video and references


Head control and development in supine

Head control: development and assessment
Supine assessment 2-3 months


Prone development and crawling

Prone development videos

Prone development and assessment

Infants who scoot on their buttocks

Early exploratory hand and foot actions
Overview: development of hand function

Foundation manual behaviors 0-5 months

How to set up a play gym to encourage early hand function

Infant foot actions

Training sitting: principles and assumptions

Infant sitting bibliography

Assessment and training of sitting

Standing and cruising
Overview development of standing                

Infants who won’t put their feet down to stand

Guide to assessment of standing with hand support – with PDF download