Toddler abilities: locomotor, agility, climbing tasks

What a toddler of 18-36 months should be able to do

By 15 -18 months most toddlers have acquired the ability to walk, run, negotiate obstacles and clamber and climb up onto raised surfaces at a basic level of control. Over time, with practice and experience, typically developing toddlers improve their ability to adapt these basic abilities to meet the demands of different contexts and goals. 

Here I provide a list of all the basic motor locomotor abilities, sometimes referred to as fundamental motor patterns, that toddlers should acquire between 18 months and 3 years of age. 


Standing balance and stability

Stands easily and independently with feet hip width apart

►  Can look to the side and behind.  This action requires good standing balance as the LEs and feet have to adapt to the twisting action of the head and trunk. 

standing-turn-head.jpg


Reaches down to pick up toys from the floor   

Can maintain a half squat position with ease. 

T 2y 1m stand reach down.jpg


Can stand, hold and maneuver a large object 

►  Lifting and moving large and heavy objects requires effective anticipatory postural adjustments to stabilize the head and trunk, and realignment of the trunk and limbs to maintain balance. 

pour-water-from-big-bottle_1.jpg   T 2 y watering can_1.jpg  T aged 22m playing boxes_1_1.jpg


Can lift a ball and throw it from above the head 

Maintains balance, may take a small step. 

2y 11m lifting ball to throw.jpg


Stands on a raised surface with confidence

Low stool, bathroom step, low plank bridge, kitchen chair, bed. 

Standing on a high surface is important for developing tolerance of heights and balance when standing on a raised surface. 

Toddlers also need to learn to judge whether they can step down from different heights. 

Stepping up 20m step 16.jpg   jumping fown from box 1.jpg   Walk-on-raised-plank.jpg


Walking 

Walks on an even surface with confidence

Does not fall or trip easily.
Looks ahead, avoids obstacles, notices changes in surface, slope.


Walks across an uneven surface

Out of doors, on grass, on an uneven path.

  • Looks ahead to plan steps.  
  • Foot placement is adapted to suit the irregular surface. 
  • Ankle muscles must work to stabilize the foot.
  • Falls occasionally, but not regularly. 

walk-pebbles.jpg


Walks on a soft surface

Can walk across a mattress, over pillows large sofa cushions laid on the floor.

2y 6m walking on soft surface.jpg


Walks up and down a 15-200 slope with confidence 

  • This requires good balance, especially walking downhill.  
  • Step size needs to be adjusted and the trunk needs to be slightly inclined to keep it balanced over the feet. 

walk-down-slope.jpg


Walks on a 15-30 cm wide raised plank with confidence

Walking on a raised surface challenges the toddlers balance, because the drop-off on ether side changes the visual information the toddler uses for maintaining balance. 

Walk-on-raised-plank.jpg  jem-walk-the-plank.jpg

Walks across a raised plank carrying a ball or other large object. 

walk-bridge-carry-ball.jpg

Read more
Subscribers Walking over a bride: training ideas 


Walks carrying large or heavy objects

Carrying large and heavy objects challenges a toddler's balance, trunk muscle strength and stability, as well limb strength.

It also requires careful use of visual information for planning actions. 

T aged 22m playing boxes_1.jpg


Stepping up and over 

Steps over a small obstacles laid end-to-end

Early walkers will usually first stop in front of the obstacles before stepping over. 

Step-over_1.jpg

With practice and walking experience, toddlers learn to walk or run and step over any small obstacles in their without first stopping.
 

T 2y 7m stepping over obstacle 1.jpg

Read more 
For subscribers   Stepping over obstacles: training ideas

 


Steps up onto a 10-20 cm high step 

May initially need light touch hand support. 

After some practice can step up without hand support onto increasingly higher steps. 

Sometimes a high step will require a different strategy

Step up low step touch support.jpg   2y 1m step up 10 cm 5.jpg   Stepping up 27.jpg

Read more
Open access  Stepping up: task analysis 
Subscribers:   Training stepping up


Steps down from a 10-20 cm high step

Initially with hand support, but with practice with no hand support (by 3 years of age).

 stepping down.jpgT 2y 1m step down 30 cm 3.jpg


Walks up stairs holding the stair rail or an adult hand  

stairs.jpg


Walks down stairs holding the stair rail or an adult hand


Steps over a gap between low steps

stepping-stones-hold-for-support.jpg       jem-stepping-stones-bigger-gap_1.jpg

 


Standing up, sitting down and squatting 

Can stand up from a 10-15 cm high step 

Standing-up-from-low-step_1.jpg

Read more
For subscribers Standing up and sitting down: progression and games


Can squat down and stand up again   

will 18 m squat to stand 1.jpg   will 18 m squat to stand 2.jpg

Read more
Open access    How young children stand up from sitting on the floor
Subscribers     Squat, half squat and sitting down on the floor


Stands up from sitting on floor easily and quickly

2y 11m stand from floor.jpg

Read more
Open access    How young children stand up from sitting on the floor
Subscribers     Squat, half squat and sitting down on the floor


Running 

Runs easily on an even surface 

T 2y 7m running 3.jpg


Runs on uneven ground

falling.jpg

 


Climbing and clambering 

Clambers up onto a couch, bed or chair

Is able pull self up by pushing or pulling with the arms. 

clambering 1.jpg


Climbs onto a dining room chair and turns around to sit 

This requires good planning abilities and coordination between trunk and limbs. 

2y 11m climb chair_2.jpg


Climbs up onto a low table or dinning room chair and stands up

climbing onto box.jpg   jumping fown from box 1.jpg


Climbs onto the lowest rungs of the jungle gym

The ability to climb on a jungle gym with confidence takes practice. A child's abilities will depend on experience. 

toddler 2y 9m climbing frame.jpg


Slides down a small slide with confidence

on slide.jpg


Jumping

Jumps up off two feet 

By the age of 2-3 years a toddler should be able to jump up off two feet and then land on two feet  again. 

jump-off-two-feet_1.jpg

Jumping up off two feet has two stages: bending the knees  to prepare for jumping, then rapidly extending the legs and taking off. 

Sometime after the second birthday one sees toddlers getting ready for a jump by bending the legs and then working hard at developing the coordinated between the hip, knee and ankle muscles needed for launching the body into space. 

Ready-to-jump.jpg 

Read more:
Subscribers:  Jumping up off two feet: analysis and training ideas


Jumps over a low obstacle with two foot take off (by 3 years)

jump over a low obstacle_1.jpg


Jumps down from a 20-30 cm high step 
 

jump down cube 2_1.jpg   jump down cube 1.jpg   

Read more:
Subscribers: Learning to jump down


Runs and jumps/leaps over a low obstacle

One foot take-off  (by 3 years) 

T 2y 7m stepping over obstacle 1_1.jpg


Ball skills 

Catches a soccer sized ball with two hands

2y catch scoop ball.jpg


Throws a soccer sized ball with two hands

Toodler-skittlles-throw-2.jpg


Kicks a soccer sized ball 

T 3y 2m kicking ball 5.jpg


Intercepts a rolled ball

2y 11m catching rolled ball.jpg    follow facebook.png


Toddler Gross Motor Tasks Checklist

Available to TOMT 0-3 subscribers 

The TGMT Checklist is a list of all the basic motor tasks a toddler should master by the age of 2-3 years.  The Checklist allows parents an overview of their toddlers' strengths and weaknesses, and identifies tasks that need to be practiced.

Each task is briefly described, goals are identified and space is provided for recording progress towards achieving each goal. 

You can download a sample Gross Motor Checlist by clicking on the PDF link below. 

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  • Sample Toddler Gross Motor Checklist