Bibliography Reach, grasp and manipulation

von Hofsten

von Hofsten C, Rosander K. The Development of Sensorimotor Intelligence in Infants. Adv Child Dev Behav. 2018;55:73-106. doi: 10.1016/bs.acdb.2018.04.003. Epub 2018 May 21. Review. PubMed PMID: 30031439. 2:

von Hofsten C, Rönnqvist L. The structuring of neonatal arm movements. Child Dev. 1993 Aug;64(4):1046-57. PubMed PMID: 8404256.

Gottwald JM, De Bortoli Vizioli A, Lindskog M, Nyström P, L Ekberg T, von Hofsten C, Gredebäck G. Infants prospectively control reaching based on the difficulty of future actions: To what extent can infants' multiple-step actions be explained by Fitts' law? Dev Psychol. 2017 Jan;53(1):4-12. doi: 10.1037/dev0000212. PubMed PMID: 28026189.

 Savelsbergh G, von Hofsten C, Jonsson B. The coupling of head, reach and grasp movement in nine months old infant prehension. Scand J Psychol. 1997 Dec;38(4):325-33. PubMed PMID: 9449194.

Cunha AB, Soares Dde A, Carvalho Rde P, Rosander K, von Hofsten C, Tudella E. Maturational and situational determinants of reaching at its onset. Infant Behav Dev. 2015 Nov;41:64-72. doi: 10.1016/j.infbeh.2015.06.003. Epub 2015 Sep 2. PubMed PMID: 26311469.

At 3 months of age, reaching behavior was measured in a group of 10 girls and 10 boys born at term. The assessments were carried out on the average 2 days after reaching onset. Reaching kinematics was measured in both supine and reclined positions. Girls reached more than boys, had straighter reaching trajectories and movements of shorter durations as well as fewer movement units. The reclined position gave rise to straighter trajectories in both girls and boys. Several anthropometric parameters were measured. Girls had less length and volume of the forearm than boys but similar upper arm volumes. There was a weak relation between kinematic and anthropometric variables.

Bertenthal B, Von Hofsten C. Eye, head and trunk control: the foundation for manual development. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 1998 Jul;22(4):515-20. Review. PubMed PMID: 9595563.

Mastery of reaching and manipulation relies on adequate postural control. The trunk must be balanced relative to a base of support to allow free movements of the arms and hands. Moreover, the head must be supported flexibly by the trunk so that gaze can be directed toward the target to provide a spatial frame of reference for reaching. For fine manipulation it is also crucial to avoid retinal slips which would introduce blur. Stabilizing gaze is generally accomplished through adjustments of both eye and head position. Until gaze is stabilized, it is difficult to establish a frame of reference between the target and the self. Thus, a nested hierarchy of support involving the eyes, head, and trunk forms an important foundation for manual activity.


Iryna Babik  and Michel

Babik I, Michel GF. Development of role-differentiated bimanual manipulation in infancy: Part 1. The emergence of the skill. Dev Psychobiol. 2016 Mar;58(2):243-56. doi: 10.1002/dev.21382. Epub 2015 Dec 8. PubMed PMID: 26644301.

2: Babik I, Michel GF. Development of role-differentiated bimanual manipulation in infancy: Part 3. Its relation to the development of bimanual object acquisition and bimanual non-differentiated manipulation. Dev Psychobiol. 2016 Mar;58(2):268-77. doi: 10.1002/dev.21383. Epub 2015 Dec 8. PubMed PMID: 26642790.

3: Babik I, Michel GF. Development of role-differentiated bimanual manipulation in infancy: Part 2. Hand preferences for object acquisition and RDBM--continuity or discontinuity? Dev Psychobiol. 2016 Mar;58(2):257-67. doi: 10.1002/dev.21378. Epub 2015 Nov 3. PubMed PMID: 26526812.

4: Nelson EL, Campbell JM, Michel GF. Unimanual to bimanual: tracking the development of handedness from 6 to 24 months. Infant Behav Dev. 2013 Apr;36(2):181-8. doi: 10.1016/j.infbeh.2013.01.009. Epub 2013 Feb 28. PubMed PMID: 23454419; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3615031.

Kimmerle M, Ferre CL, Kotwica KA, Michel GF. Development of role-differentiated bimanual manipulation during the infant's first year. Dev Psychobiol. 2010 Mar;52(2):168-80. doi: 10.1002/dev.20428. PubMed PMID: 20127887.

Jana Iverson 

Koterba, E. A., Leezenbaum, N. B., & Iverson, J. M. (2012). Object exploration at 6 and 9 months in infants with and without risk for autism. Autism : the international journal of research and practice, 18(2), 97-105.

Soares and Tudella 

Soares Dde A, von Hofsten C, Tudella E. Development of exploratory behavior in late preterm infants. Infant Behav Dev. 2012 Dec;35(4):912-5. doi: 10.1016/j.infbeh.2012.09.002. Epub 2012 Oct 13. PubMed PMID: 23069127.

2: de Almeida Soares D, Cunha AB, Tudella E. Differences between late preterm and full-term infants: comparing effects of a short bout of practice on early reaching behavior. Res Dev Disabil. 2014 Nov;35(11):3096-107. doi: 10.1016/j.ridd.2014.07.041. Epub 2014 Aug 15. Erratum in: Res Dev Disabil. 2015 May;40:74. PubMed PMID: 25134076.

Soares Dde A, von Hofsten C, Tudella E. Development of exploratory behavior in late preterm infants. Infant Behav Dev. 2012 Dec;35(4):912-5. doi: 10.1016/j.infbeh.2012.09.002. Epub 2012 Oct 13. PubMed PMID: 23069127.

de Toledo AM, Soares DA, Tudella E. Proximal and distal adjustments of reaching behavior in preterm infants. J Mot Behav. 2011;43(2):137-45. doi: 10.1080/00222895.2011.552076. PubMed PMID: 21400327.

de Toledo AM, Soares DA, Tudella E. Additional weight influences the reaching behavior of low-risk preterm infants. J Mot Behav. 2012;44(3):203-12. doi: 10.1080/00222895.2012.676580. PubMed PMID: 22647245. 4:

Soares Dde A, Toledo Ade M, Carvalho Rde P, Tudella E. Effect of weight load added to wrists on manual non-exploratory and exploratory behaviors in infants. Percept Mot Skills. 2013 Oct;117(2):651-63. PubMed PMID: 24611265. 

Soares Dde A, van der Kamp J, Savelsbergh GJ, Tudella E. The effect of a short bout of practice on reaching behavior in late preterm infants at the onset of reaching: a randomized controlled trial. Res Dev Disabil. 2013 Dec;34(12):4546-58. doi: 10.1016/j.ridd.2013.09.028. Epub 2013 Oct 18. PubMed PMID: 24145045. 6:

Cunha AB, Soares Dde A, Carvalho Rde P, Rosander K, von Hofsten C, Tudella E. Maturational and situational determinants of reaching at its onset. Infant Behav Dev. 2015 Nov;41:64-72. doi: 10.1016/j.infbeh.2015.06.003. Epub 2015 Sep 2. PubMed PMID: 26311469.

Australia-Sweden group 

Greaves S, Imms C, Krumlinde-Sundholm L, Dodd K, Eliasson AC. Bimanual behaviours in children aged 8-18 months: a literature review to select toys that elicit the use of two hands. Res Dev Disabil. 2012 Jan-Feb;33(1):240-50. doi: 10.1016/j.ridd.2011.09.012. Epub 2011 Oct 11. Review. PubMed PMID: 22093670.

Eliasson, A. C., Sjöstrand, L., Ek, L., Krumlinde-Sundholm, L., & Tedroff, K. (2014). Efficacy of baby-CIMT: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial on infants below age 12 months, with clinical signs of unilateral CP. BMC pediatrics, 14, 141. doi:10.1186/1471-2431-14-141

Heathcock  Lobo Dusing Galloway

Lobo, M. A., Galloway, J. C., & Heathcock, J. C. (2014). Characterization and intervention for upper extremity exploration & reaching behaviors in infancy. Journal of hand therapy : official journal of the American Society of Hand Therapists, 28(2), 114-24; quiz 125.

This article aims to: 1) highlight general exploration, reaching, and object exploration behaviors as key activities of daily living in infancy, 2) describe how knowledge of early warning signs for these behaviors may improve early assessment, and 3) discuss interventions that may advance performance of these behaviors. Early intervention should focus on improving performance of these behaviors because: a) these early, interrelated upper extremity behaviors serve an integral role in global learning and development in infancy, b) among at-risk populations, differences have been observed in the quantity and quality of performance of these behaviors and, in many cases, these differences are associated with related perceptual-motor and cognitive delays. This article highlights how early assessment and intervention can target these key early behaviors in populations at risk for upper extremity disabilities, such as those born preterm, with Down syndrome, brachial plexus palsy, or arthrogryposis multiplex congentia.

Chorna, O., Heathcock, J., Key, A., Noritz, G., Carey, H., Hamm, E., Nelin, M. A., Murray, M., Needham, A., Slaughter, J. C., … Maitre, N. L. (2015). Early childhood constraint therapy for sensory/motor impairment in cerebral palsy: a randomised clinical trial protocol. BMJ open, 5(12), e010212. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2015-010212

Chen CY, Lo WD, Heathcock JC. Neonatal stroke causes poor midline motor behaviors and poor fine and gross motor skills during early infancy. Res Dev Disabil. 2013 Mar;34(3):1011-7. doi: 10.1016/j.ridd.2012.11.028. Epub 2013 Jan 3. PubMed PMID: 23291519.

Dusing, S. C., Lobo, M. A., Lee, H. M., & Galloway, J. C. (2013). Intervention in the first weeks of life for infants born late preterm: a case series. Pediatric physical therapy : the official publication of the Section on Pediatrics of the American Physical Therapy Association, 25(2), 194-203.

Lobo MA, Galloway JC. The onset of reaching significantly impacts how infants explore both objects and their bodies. Infant Behav Dev. 2013 Feb;36(1):14-24.

Lobo, M. A., Kokkoni, E., Cunha, A. B., & Galloway, J. C. (2014). Infants born preterm demonstrate impaired object exploration behaviors throughout infancy and toddlerhood. Physical therapy, 95(1), 51-64.

Lobo, M. A., Kokkoni, E., de Campos, A. C., & Galloway, J. C. (2014). Not just playing around: infants' behaviors with objects reflect ability, constraints, and object properties. Infant behavior & development, 37(3), 334-51.

Heathcock JC, Lobo M, Galloway JC. Movement training advances the emergence of reaching in infants born at less than 33 weeks of gestational age: a randomized clinical trial. Phys Ther. 2008 Mar;88(3):310-22. Epub 2007 Dec 20. PubMed PMID: 18096650.

Italian Research Groups 

Zoia, S., Blason, L., D'Ottavio, G., Biancotto, M., Bulgheroni, M., & Castiello, U. (2013). The development of upper limb movements: from fetal to post-natal life. PloS one, 8(12), e80876. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0080876

Guzzetta A, Pizzardi A, Belmonti V, Boldrini A, Carotenuto M, D'Acunto G, Ferrari F, Fiori S, Gallo C, Ghirri P, Mercuri E, Romeo D, Roversi MF, Cioni G. Hand movements at 3 months predict later hemiplegia in term infants with neonatal cerebral infarction. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2010 Aug;52(8):767-72

French Researchers 

Ouss, L., Le Normand, M. T., Bailly, K., Leitgel Gille, M., Gosme, C., Simas, R., Wenke, J., Jeudon, X., Thepot, S., Da Silva, T., Clady, X., Thoueille, E., Afshar, M., Golse, B., … Guergova-Kuras, M. (2018). Developmental Trajectories of Hand Movements in Typical Infants and Those at Risk of Developmental Disorders: An Observational Study of Kinematics during the First Year of Life. Frontiers in psychology, 9, 83.